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Drug Prevents HIV-like Infection in Monkeys

January 15, 2015 3:00 pm | by The Rockefeller Univ. | News | Comments

The new drug cabotegravir has been shown to protect monkeys from infection by an HIV-like virus, and a clinical trial testing its safety and acceptability has begun. Unlike other preventive treatments, it would require only one injection every three months.

Excess Iron Promotes Aging

January 15, 2015 3:00 pm | by Buck Institute for Age Research | News | Comments

It's been known for decades that some metals, including iron, accumulate in human tissues during aging. Common belief has held that iron accumulation happens as a result of the aging process. But, research shows that iron accumulation itself may also be a significant contributor to the aging process, causing dysfunction and malfolding of proteins already implicated in the aging process.

Research Throws Origin of Asteroids into Doubt

January 15, 2015 7:00 am | by Purdue Univ. | News | Comments

Asteroids may be a byproduct of planet formation rather than planetary building blocks. Research suggests collisions of planetary embryos– the seeds to the planets in our solar system that existed 4 billion years ago– could be the origin of the material that formed asteroids.

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Behavioral Changes May Start in Alzheimer’s Before Memory Problems

January 15, 2015 7:00 am | by American Academy of Neurology | News | Comments

Studies have shown that an estimated 90 percent of people with Alzheimer’s experience behavioral or psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety and agitation. A new study shows that depression and other behavioral changes may show up in people who will later develop Alzheimer’s disease even before they start having memory problems.

Rain Releases Aerosols

January 15, 2015 7:00 am | by MIT, Jennifer Chu | Videos | Comments

Ever notice an earthy smell in the air after a light rain? Now, scientists believe they may have identified the mechanism that releases this aroma, as well as other aerosols, into the environment. Using high-speed cameras, the researchers observed that when a raindrop hits a porous surface, it traps tiny air bubbles at the point of contact.

DNA 'Smart Glue' May Aid 3-D Printing of Tissues, Organs

January 15, 2015 7:00 am | by ACS | News | Comments

DNA molecules provide the “source code” for life in humans, plants, animals and some microbes. Now, researchers report an initial study showing that the strands can also act as a glue to hold together 3-D-printed materials that could someday be used to grow tissues and organs in the lab.

Tattoo-like Sensor Monitors Diabetics' Glucose Levels

January 14, 2015 3:00 pm | by ACS | News | Comments

Scientists have developed the first ultra-thin, flexible device that sticks to skin like a rub-on tattoo and can detect a person’s glucose levels. The sensor has the potential to eliminate finger-pricking for many people with diabetes.

Renewable Resources Can Be Maxed Out

January 14, 2015 3:00 pm | by Michigan State Univ. | News | Comments

The days of assuming natural resources can be swapped in and out to solve shortages— corn for oil, soy for beef— may be over. An international group of scientists has demonstrated that many key resources have peaked in productivity, pointing to the sobering conclusion that "renewable" is not synonymous with "unlimited."

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California Introduces Strictest Pesticide Rules in U.S.

January 14, 2015 3:00 pm | by Associated Press, Scott Smith | News | Comments

Farmers in California now must abide by the nation's strictest rules for a widely used pesticide under heightened regulations designed to protect farmworkers and people who live and work near the fields where it is used. The new regulations surpass standards required by the EPA.

Pollutants Found in Oil, Gas Wastewater

January 14, 2015 3:00 pm | by Duke Univ. | News | Comments

Scientists have discovered high levels of two potentially hazardous contaminants, ammonium and iodide, in wastewater being discharged or spilled into streams and rivers from oil and gas operations in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Levels of contamination were just as high in wastewater coming from conventional oil and gas wells as from hydraulically fractured shale gas wells.

Researchers Take Step Toward Cocaine Antidote

January 14, 2015 7:00 am | by Univ. of Copenhagen | News | Comments

Dopamine is a signaling molecule in the brain that is involved in our sensation of reward, motivation and, thus, addiction. Now, researchers have gained new insight into the mechanism behind a protein dopamine transporter that could help in the development of future medical treatment against cocaine addiction.

Blood Test for TBI May Not Be Feasible

January 14, 2015 7:00 am | by Univ. of Rochester Medical Center | News | Comments

Complications involving the brain's unique waste removal system— the existence of which has only recently been brought to light— may thwart efforts to identify biomarkers that detect traumatic brain injury (TBI). That is because proteins that are triggered by brain damage are prevented from reaching the blood system in levels necessary for a precise diagnosis.

Today in Lab History: Rolla N. Harger

January 14, 2015 7:00 am | by Lily Barback, Associate Editor | News | Comments

Indiana Univ.’s Prof. Rolla N. Harger, born Jan. 14, 1890, was an American toxicologist and biochemist who invented the first stable machine for testing human blood alcohol content, called the Drunkometer in 1938— the first breathalyzer. Indiana’s State Police were the first customers for the invention.

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Nicotine Vaccine Provokes Immune Response

January 13, 2015 3:00 pm | by The Scripps Research Institute | News | Comments

When a promising nicotine vaccine failed in clinical trials a few years ago, scientists were determined to keep trying to help smokers overcome their addiction. Now, the team has designed a more effective nicotine vaccine and proven that the structures of molecules used in vaccines is critical.

DuPont Workers Possibly Exposed to Fumes for Years

January 13, 2015 3:00 pm | by Associated Press | News | Comments

Records indicate that employees at DuPont’s Houston-area pesticide plant, where a poisonous gas leak killed four workers in November, may have been periodically exposed to the dangerous fumes for years. DuPont reported exhaust and ventilation system malfunctions at the La Porte plant to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality in 2009 and 2010, but neither the company nor the state regulator alerted the OSHA.

How Drug Reverses Obesity, Diabetes, Liver Disease

January 13, 2015 7:00 am | by Univ. of Michigan | News | Comments

Researchers have identified how a promising drug in clinical trials for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders improves the metabolism of sugar by generating a new signal between fat cells and the liver. In addition to illuminating how the drug, amlexanox, reverses obesity, diabetes and fatty liver disease, the findings suggest a new pathway for future treatments.

Viruses May Make Us Smarter

January 12, 2015 3:00 pm | by Lund Univ. | News | Comments

Researchers have long been aware that endogenous retroviruses constitute around 5 percent of our DNA. For many years, they were considered junk DNA of no real use, a side-effect of our evolutionary journey. A new study has indicated that these inherited viruses play an important role in building up the complex networks that characterize the human brain.

Chemists Accelerate Drug Discovery Research

January 12, 2015 3:00 pm | by Emory Health Sciences | News | Comments

Chemists have made a significant advancement to directly functionalize C-H bonds in natural products by selectively installing new carbon-carbon bonds into highly complex alkaloids and nitrogen-containing drug molecules. C-H functionalization is a much more streamlined process than traditional organic chemistry, holding the potential to greatly reduce the time and number of steps needed to create derivatives of natural products.

'May Contain Nuts.' But, How Much is Too Much?

January 12, 2015 7:00 am | by Univ. of Manchester | News | Comments

While allergenic ingredients used in a recipe have to be listed on food labels, traces of allergens that accidentally find their way into foods are not currently regulated. In a new study, researchers have identified the level of five of the most common food allergens that would cause a reaction in only 10 percent of people who are sensitive to them.

Metabolism Speed May Determine the Best Way to Quit Smoking

January 12, 2015 7:00 am | by Perelman School of Medicine at the Univ. of Pennsylvania | News | Comments

Nearly 70 percent of smokers who try to quit relapse within one week— daunting odds for people trying to kick the habit. Now, researchers have shown that the most-suited treatment for each smoker may depend on how quickly they metabolize the nicotine in their body after quitting.

CDC Pushes Antivirals in Face of Flu

January 9, 2015 3:00 pm | by Associated Press, Mike Stobbe | News | Comments

In the midst of a worrisome flu season, health officials are pushing doctors to prescribe antiviral medicines. The CDC sent a new alert to doctors today, advising prompt use of Tamiflu and other antivirals for hospitalized flu patients and those at higher risk for complications.

Getting in Shape? Here Are Four Sweaty Facts

January 9, 2015 7:00 am | by ACS | Videos | Comments

If you're like a lot of people, your New Year's resolution probably involves getting in shape. Before you pack your gym bag, pack your brain with some crazy facts about sweat.

Snail Venom May Tackle Cancer, Addiction

January 9, 2015 7:00 am | by Univ. of Queensland | News | Comments

Cone snail venom— which the snail uses to immobilize prey, including worms, other snails and fish— has given researchers a lead on the possible detection and treatment of some cancers and addictions.

Prototype Plant Turns Waste into 500 Liters of Fuel a Day

January 9, 2015 7:00 am | by Investigación y Desarrollo | News | Comments

From waste generated in the processing of cereals, scientists in Mexico have produced bioenergy in the form of ethanol, and designed a prototype plant that generates 500 liters of bioethanol a day.

Five Considerations for New Gov’t Dietary Advice

January 8, 2015 3:00 pm | by Associated Press, Mary Jalonick | News | Comments

You've heard it before: eat fewer calories, more fruits and more vegetables. Those recurring themes as well as some new advice about sugar, salt, meat and caffeine could be part of the government's upcoming dietary guidelines for healthy eating. Here are five things to watch for as the government begins writing the new guidelines.

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