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Gamblers are Birdbrained

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by Univ. of Warwick | News | Comments

Gamblers are greedy and birdbrained, new research has found. Gamblers show the same tendencies as pigeons when they make risky decisions. Tests have found that both human gamblers and pigeons were 35 percent more likely to gamble for high-value than low-value rewards.

Lethal Spears Indicate Early Cognitive, Social Skills

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by Arizona State Univ. | News | Comments

Attaching a stone tip to a wooden spear shaft was a significant innovation for early modern...

Brain is Hyper-connected in Depressed Young Adults

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by Univ. of Illinois at Chicago | News | Comments

Depression may be better predicted and understood now that researchers have discovered that...

Walking Fish Reveal How Land Animals Evolved

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by McGill Univ. | News | Comments

About 400 million years ago a group of fish began exploring land and evolved into tetrapods–...

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Gamblers are Birdbrained

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by Univ. of Warwick | News | Comments

Gamblers are greedy and birdbrained, new research has found. Gamblers show the same tendencies as pigeons when they make risky decisions. Tests have found that both human gamblers and pigeons were 35 percent more likely to gamble for high-value than low-value rewards.

Brain is Hyper-connected in Depressed Young Adults

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by Univ. of Illinois at Chicago | News | Comments

Depression may be better predicted and understood now that researchers have discovered that young adults who previously experienced the mental illness have hyper-connected emotional and cognitive networks in the brain.

Old Specimens, Modern Cities Shed Light on Pest's Future

August 27, 2014 2:00 pm | by North Carolina State Univ. | News | Comments

Researchers have found that century-old museum specimens hold clues to how global climate change will affect a common insect pest that can weaken and kill trees– and the news is not good.

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Scientists Change Memories’ Emotional Association

August 27, 2014 2:00 pm | by MIT, Anne Trafton | News | Comments

A new study from neuroscientists reveals the brain circuit that controls how memories become linked with positive or negative emotions. Furthermore, the researchers found that they could reverse the emotional association of specific memories by manipulating brain cells with optogenetics— a technique that uses light to control neuron activity.

Fossil May Be Earliest Evidence of Muscle

August 27, 2014 2:00 pm | by Univ. of Cambridge | News | Comments

An unusual new fossil discovery of one of the earliest animals on Earth may also provide the oldest evidence of muscle tissue– the bundles of cells that make movement in animals possible.

Potential Ebola Treatment May Help Contain Future Outbreaks

August 27, 2014 2:00 pm | by ACS | News | Comments

Ebola is a rare, but deadly disease that exists as five strains, none of which have approved therapies. One of the most lethal strains is the Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). Now, researchers are reporting a possible therapy that could someday help treat patients infected with SUDV.

Study IDs Why Learning Tasks Can Be Difficult

August 27, 2014 2:00 pm | by Carnegie Mellon Univ. | News | Comments

Learning a new skill is easier when it is related to an ability we already have. Scientists have discovered a fundamental constraint in the brain that may explain why this happens. They found, for the first time, that there are limitations on how adaptable the brain is during learning and that these restrictions are a key determinant for whether a new skill will be easy or difficult to learn.

Expedition Reveals Effects of Altitude on Blood Pressure

August 27, 2014 2:00 pm | by European Society of Cardiology | News | Comments

An expedition to Mount Everest by Italian researchers has shown for the first time that blood pressure monitored over a 24-hour period rises progressively as people climb to higher altitudes. The researchers also found that a drug used for lowering blood pressure, called telmisartan, was effective in counteracting the effects of altitude up to 3,400 meters.

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Study Questions Long-held Depression Belief

August 27, 2014 2:00 pm | by ACS | News | Comments

New evidence puts into doubt the long-standing belief that a deficiency in serotonin— a chemical messenger in the brain— plays a central role in depression. Scientists are reporting that mice lacking the ability to make serotonin in their brains did not show depression-like symptoms.

Brain Benefits from Bariatric Surgery

August 27, 2014 7:00 am | by Endocrine Society | News | Comments

Weight loss surgery can curb alterations in brain activity associated with obesity and improve cognitive function involved in planning, strategizing and organizing.

Medtech, Pharma Start Hot, But Fizzle Out

August 27, 2014 7:00 am | by Evaluate Ltd. | News | Comments

An M&A frenzy that accounted for nearly $90 billion of equity set the pace for the first half of 2014 in the pharma and biotech sectors, but a slowdown in IPOs and six months of volatile market activity could tarnish the year’s shimmering start.

Cells Can Be Sorted with Sound

August 27, 2014 7:00 am | by MIT, Anne Trafton | Videos | Comments

Researchers have devised a new way to separate cells by exposing them to sound waves as they flow through a tiny channel. Their device, about the size of a dime, could be used to detect the extremely rare tumor cells that circulate in cancer patients’ blood, helping doctors predict whether a tumor is going to spread.

Sheepdog Study Could Have Deep Impact

August 27, 2014 7:00 am | by Natural Environment Research Council | News | Comments

Sheepdogs use just two simple rules to round up large herds of sheep, scientists have discovered. The findings could lead to the development of robots that can gather and herd livestock, crowd control techniques, or new methods to clean up the environment.

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FDA Wants Comments of 'Safer' Tobacco

August 27, 2014 7:00 am | by Associated Press, Michael Felberbaum | News | Comments

Federal regulators are seeking public comment on smokeless tobacco maker Swedish Match's request to certify its General-branded tobacco products as less harmful than cigarettes. It is the first time the FDA has accepted a modified risk tobacco product application, a move that's being closely watched by both the public health community and tobacco companies.

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Heightens Later Obesity Risk

August 27, 2014 7:00 am | by Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research | News | Comments

A study examining body mass index in a large clinical sample of children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders has found that rates of excess weight/obesity are elevated in children with partial fetal alcohol syndrome.

Genomics Key to Healthier Canola Oil, Tastier Broccoli

August 26, 2014 2:00 pm | by Univ. of Arizona | News | Comments

Genomics researchers have unraveled the genetic code of the rapeseed plant, most noted for a variety whose seeds are made into canola oil. Broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, turnip, collared greens, mustard and canola oil are all different incarnations of the same plant genus, Brassica.

European MRSA Came from Africa

August 26, 2014 2:00 pm | by American Society for Microbiology | News | Comments

The predominant strain of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infecting people in Europe, the Middle East and northern Africa derived from a single sub-Saharan ancestor, a team of international researchers have reported.

Wii Balance Boards May Help MS Patients

August 26, 2014 2:00 pm | by Radiological Society of North America | News | Comments

A balance board accessory for a popular video game console can help people with multiple sclerosis reduce their risk of accidental falls. MRI scans showed that use of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board system appears to induce favorable changes in brain connections associated with balance and movement.

Early Human's Skull Not Human-like

August 26, 2014 2:00 pm | by Wits Univ. | News | Comments

The Taung Child, South Africa’s premier hominin discovered 90 years ago, never ceases to transform and evolve the search for our collective origins. Now, researchers are casting doubt on theories that Australopithecus africanus shows the same cranial adaptations found in modern human infants and toddlers– in effect disproving current support for the idea that this early hominin shows infant brain development in the prefrontal region.

Long Childhood Needed for Brain Growth

August 26, 2014 7:00 am | by Northwestern Univ. | News | Comments

A 5-year-old's brain is an energy monster. It uses twice as much glucose, the energy that fuels the brain, as that of a full-grown adult, anthropologists have found. The study helps to solve the long-standing mystery of why human children grow so slowly compared with our closest animal relatives.

Researchers ID Bactria that Protect Against Food Allergies

August 26, 2014 7:00 am | by Univ. of Chicago Medical Center | News | Comments

The presence of Clostridia, a common class of gut bacteria, protects against food allergies, a new study in mice has found. By inducing immune responses that prevent food allergens from entering the bloodstream, Clostridia minimize allergen exposure and prevent sensitization– a key step in the development of food allergies.

Bad Eyesight Can Dim Life Expectancy

August 26, 2014 7:00 am | by Purdue Univ. | News | Comments

Older adults losing vision as they age are more likely to face an increased mortality risk, according to new research. Participants who experienced visual decline of one letter on an eye chart were expected to have a 16 percent increase in mortality risk during the eight-year study because their vision affected daily activities.

Chemists Debunk MSG Myths

August 26, 2014 7:00 am | by ACS | Videos | Comments

Few ingredients come with as much baggage as monosodium glutamate. More commonly known as MSG, the compound has had a bad reputation for nearly 50 years. So, chemists felt it was time to clear its name.

Sleep Drunkenness May Affect One in Seven

August 26, 2014 7:00 am | by American Academy of Neurology | News | Comments

A study is shining new light on a sleep disorder called “sleep drunkenness.” The disorder may be as prevalent as affecting one in every seven people. Sleep drunkenness disorder involves confusion or inappropriate behavior, such as answering the phone instead of turning off the alarm, during or following awakening.

Image of the Week: Goldilocks Growth May Strengthen River Deltas

August 26, 2014 7:00 am | by Indiana Univ. | News | Comments

Research by geologists suggests that an intermediate amount of vegetation— not too little and not too much— is most effective at stabilizing freshwater river deltas. The findings may help guide restoration of river deltas, such as those near the mouth of the Mississippi River, which are under threat as sea levels rise.

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