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Study: Cave Art Made by Neanderthals

September 2, 2014 2:00 pm | by Associated Press, Frank Jordans | News | Comments

A series of lines scratched into rock in a cave near the southwestern tip of Europe could be proof that Neanderthals were more intelligent and creative than previously thought.

Coffee Ups Prediabetes Risk in Young Adults

September 2, 2014 2:00 pm | by European Society of Cardiology | News | Comments

Coffee increases the risk of prediabetes in young adults with hypertension who are slow caffeine...

Corals are Nature’s Engineers

September 2, 2014 2:00 pm | by MIT, David Chandler | News | Comments

Conventional wisdom has long held that corals are passive organisms that rely entirely on ocean...

U.S. Eating Habits Improve in the Wealthy

September 2, 2014 2:00 pm | by Associated Press, Lindsey Tanner | News | Comments

Americans' eating habits have improved— except among the poor, evidence of a widening...

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Corals are Nature’s Engineers

September 2, 2014 2:00 pm | by MIT, David Chandler | News | Comments

Conventional wisdom has long held that corals are passive organisms that rely entirely on ocean currents to deliver dissolved substances, such as nutrients and oxygen. Now, scientists have found that they are far from passive, engineering their environment to sweep water into turbulent patterns that greatly enhance their ability to exchange nutrients and dissolved gases with their environment.

Food Prices Rise in Ebola-hit Countries

September 2, 2014 8:20 am | by Associated Press | News | Comments

Food in countries hit by Ebola is getting more expensive and will become scarcer because many farmers won't be able to access fields, a U.N. food agency warned today.

Chefs, Breeders Team for Tasty Veggies

September 2, 2014 8:16 am | by Associated Press, M.L. Johnson | News | Comments

There's a good chance that many of the suddenly trendy vegetables that foodies latch on to in the next decade will benefit from research at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison. While plant breeders at many public universities focus on improving field corn, soybeans and other crops used in food manufacturing or livestock feed, those in Madison want to produce better-tasting vegetables.

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Train Your Brain to Want Healthy Food

September 2, 2014 7:00 am | by Tufts Univ. | News | Comments

It may be possible to train the brain to prefer healthy, low-calorie foods over unhealthy higher-calorie foods. A brain scan study in adult men and women suggests that it is possible to reverse the addictive power of unhealthy food while also increasing preference for healthy foods.

Bacteria Can Distinguish Harmful vs. Helpful Viruses

September 2, 2014 7:00 am | by Rockefeller Univ. | News | Comments

Scientists have assumed the bacterial version of an immune system would robotically destroy anything it recognized as invading viral genes. However, new experiments have now revealed that one variety of the bacterial immune system can distinguish viral foe from friend. And, the researchers report, it does so by watching for one particular cue.

Some Phytoplankton Don't Need to Take Their Vitamins

September 2, 2014 7:00 am | by Canadian Institute for Advanced Research | News | Comments

Some species of marine phytoplankton, such as the prolific bloomer Emiliania huxleyi, can grow without consuming vitamin B1, researchers have discovered. The finding contradicts the common view that E. huxleyi and many other eukaryotic microbes depend on scarce supplies of thiamine in the ocean to survive.

Less than $200 M Would Conserve Brazilian Forest

August 29, 2014 2:00 pm | by Imperial College London | News | Comments

The Atlantic Forest is one of the most important and threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world, containing the only living examples of nearly 10,000 species of plant and more bird species than all of Europe. Brazil could conserve its valuable Atlantic Forest by investing just 0.01 percent of its annual GDP.

Imaging Shows How Cocaine Slows Blood in Brain

August 29, 2014 2:00 pm | by The Optical Society | News | Comments

A new method for measuring and imaging how quickly blood flows in the brain could help doctors and researchers better understand how drug abuse affects the brain, which may aid in improving brain cancer surgery and tissue engineering, and lead to better treatment options for recovering drug addicts.

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Lessons Can Be Learned from HIV Baby

August 29, 2014 2:00 pm | by Johns Hopkins Medicine | News | Comments

The news in July that HIV had returned in a Mississippi toddler after a two-year treatment-free remission dashed the hopes of the possibility of a cure. But a new commentary argues that despite its disappointing outcome, the Mississippi case and two other recent HIV “rebounds” in adults, have yielded critical lessons about the virus’ ability to form cure-defying viral hideouts.

Evolution Occurred in Cicada’s Gut

August 29, 2014 2:00 pm | by Canadian Institute for Advanced Research | News | Comments

Organisms in a symbiotic relationship will often shed genes as they come to rely on the other organism for crucial functions. But, researchers have uncovered an unusual event in which a bacterium that lives in a type of cicada split into two species, doubling the number of organisms required for the symbiosis to survive.

Researchers Map, Compare ‘Editing Marks’ of Multiple Genomes

August 29, 2014 2:00 pm | by Washington Univ. in St. Louis | News | Comments

Researchers have published three major papers that map and compare the genomes and epigenomes of humans and two model organisms, the fly and the worm, in unprecedented detail.

Study Sheds Light on How Wild Rabbits Became Tamed

August 29, 2014 2:00 pm | by Uppsala Univ. | News | Comments

The genetic changes that transformed wild animals into domesticated forms have long been a mystery. An international team of scientists has now made a breakthrough by showing that many genes controlling the development of the brain and the nervous system were particularly important for rabbit domestication.

Home is Where Your Microbes Are

August 29, 2014 2:00 pm | by Argonne National Laboratory | News | Comments

A person's home is their castle, and they populate it with their own subjects: millions and millions of bacteria. A new study reports provides a detailed analysis of the microbes that live in houses and apartments. The results shed light on the complicated interaction between humans and the microbes that live on and around us.

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Electric Current Boosts Memory

August 29, 2014 2:00 pm | by Northwestern Univ. | News | Comments

Stimulating a particular region in the brain via non-invasive delivery of electrical current using magnetic pulses, called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, improves memory. The discovery opens a new field of possibilities for treating memory impairments caused by conditions such as stroke, early-stage Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest and the memory problems that occur in healthy aging.

Feds to Test Ebola Vaccine Next Week

August 29, 2014 7:00 am | by Associated Press, Seth Borenstein | News | Comments

Federal researchers next week will start testing humans with an experimental vaccine to prevent the deadly Ebola virus. The National Institutes of Health announced that it is launching the safety trial on a vaccine developed by the agency's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline.

Tomatoes May Prevent Prostate Cancer

August 29, 2014 7:00 am | by Univ. of Bristol | News | Comments

Men who eat over 10 portions of tomatoes a week have an 18 percent lower risk of developing prostate cancer, the second most common cancer in men worldwide, new research suggests.

Neuroscientists Watch Imagination in Action

August 29, 2014 7:00 am | by Brigham Young Univ. | News | Comments

Thanks to the dreams of a student, we now know more about where and how imagination happens in our brains. She and her faculty mentor devised experiments using MRI technology that would help them distinguish pure imagination from related processes like remembering.

Researchers Purposefully Trip Senior Citizens

August 28, 2014 2:00 pm | by Associated Press | News | Comments

Researchers are tripping seniors on purpose, and it's not some kind of warped practical joke. The experiment is among techniques being studied to prevent falls, the leading cause of injury in older adults. Falls in the elderly cost $30 billion yearly to treat and can send them spiraling into poor health and disability.

Fruit Fly Research Sheds Light on Vision

August 28, 2014 2:00 pm | by New York Univ. | News | Comments

Biologists studying fruit flies have identified a mechanism that helps explain how the diversity of neurons that make up the visual system is generated.

Study Charts Invasion of Crop Pests

August 28, 2014 2:00 pm | by Univ. of Exeter | News | Comments

More than one-in-10 pest types can already be found in around half the countries that grow their host crops. If this spread advances at its current rate, scientists fear that a significant proportion of global crop-producing countries will be overwhelmed by pests within the next 30 years.

‘Contaminated’ Blood Tests May Save Lives

August 28, 2014 2:00 pm | by American Friends of Tel Aviv Univ. | News | Comments

Some 30 percent of all positive hospital blood culture samples are discarded every day because they're contaminated— they reflect the presence of skin germs instead of specific disease-causing bacteria. But, rather than toss these compromised samples into the trash, clinicians may be able to use the resistance profiles of skin bacteria identified by these tests to treat patients with antibiotics appropriate to their ailment.

Lethal Spears Indicate Early Cognitive, Social Skills

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by Arizona State Univ. | News | Comments

Attaching a stone tip to a wooden spear shaft was a significant innovation for early modern humans living around 500,000 years ago. However, it was also a costly behavior in terms of time and effort to collect, prepare and assemble the spear. The skill was likely to have been passed from generation to generation through social or group learning.

Sprinters Punch Ground for Speed

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by Southern Methodist Univ. | Videos | Comments

The world’s fastest sprinters have unique gait features that account for their ability to achieve fast speeds, according to two new studies. The new findings indicate that the secret to elite sprinting speeds lies in the distinct limb dynamics sprinters use to elevate ground forces upon foot-ground impact.

Gamblers are Birdbrained

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by Univ. of Warwick | News | Comments

Gamblers are greedy and birdbrained, new research has found. Gamblers show the same tendencies as pigeons when they make risky decisions. Tests have found that both human gamblers and pigeons were 35 percent more likely to gamble for high-value than low-value rewards.

Junk Food Makes Rats Lose Taste for Balanced Diet

August 28, 2014 7:00 am | by Frontiers | News | Comments

A diet of junk food not only makes rats fat, but also reduces their appetite for novel foods, a preference that normally drives them to seek a balanced diet, reports a study. The study helps explain how excessive consumption of junk food can change behavior, weaken self-control and lead to overeating and obesity.

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