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Poor Dental Hygiene May Increase Alzheimer’s Risk

Tue, 07/30/2013 - 12:40pm
The Univ. of Central Lancashire

Image: The Univ. of Central LancashirePeople with poor oral hygiene or gum disease may be at a greater risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, a new study led by The Univ. of Central Lancashire (UCLan) School of Medicine and Dentistry suggests.

The research, which has received international collaboration, and led by Stjohn Crean and Sim Singhrao from UCLan, examined brain samples donated by ten patients without dementia and ten patients suffering from dementia. The research demonstrated the presence of products from Porphyromonas gingivalis in brains from patients suffering from dementia.

Singhrao says, “We are working on the theory that when the brain is repeatedly exposed to bacteria and/or their debris from our gums, subsequent immune responses may lead to nerve cell death and possibly memory loss. Thus, continued visits to dental hygiene professionals throughout one’s life may be more important than currently envisaged with inferences for health outside of the mouth only.”

This bacterium is commonly associated with chronic periodontal (gum) disease. These bacteria enter the bloodstream through daily activities such as eating, chewing, tooth brushing but especially following invasive dental treatment, and from there, potentially enter the brain on a regular basis. The researchers propose that every time they reach the brain, the bacteria may trigger immune system responses by already primed brains cells, causing them to release more chemicals that kill neurons. This could be one mechanism that leads to changes in the brain, which is typical of Alzheimer’s disease, and could be responsible for causing symptoms such as confusion and deteriorating memory.

The research benefited from donated brain samples, provided by Brains for Dementia Research, a brain donation scheme supported by Alzheimer’s Research UK and Alzheimer’s Society. Finding P. gingivalis in the brains from dementia sufferers compared to those without dementia is significant as its presence in Alzheimer’s diseased brains has not been documented previously and at the same time adds to a growing body of evidence that suggests an association between poor oral health and dementia.

These published research findings from human brain specimens are further supported by recent (as yet unpublished) research from the same group, on periodontal disease, using animal models, which has been carried out in collaboration with the Univ. of Florida. This animal work has confirmed that P. gingivalis in the mouth finds its way to the brain once the periodontal disease becomes established.

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